Publications & Reports

Bystanders, Rescuers or Perpetrators? The Neutral Countries and the Shoah

How did the neutral countries react to the Nazi persecution and murder of the European Jews? This volume uses a trans-national, comparative approach to examine the often ambivalent policies of these states towards Jewish refugees as well as towards their own Jewish nationals living in German-occupied countries.

It breaks down persistent myths to contribute to a more nuanced understanding of an under-researched chapter of Holocaust history and also considers the challenges and opportunities related to Holocaust education and remembrance in the neutral countries.

This publication covers:

  1. The situation of Jewish refugees before the war (1933–1939)
  2. The situation of Jewish refugees during the war (1939–1945)
  3. Reactions by the neutral countries to the Holocaust
  4. Rescue myths, public debates, and historical investigations
  5. The challenges of Holocaust remembrance and education in neutral countries
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